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statisc

Introduction: Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied.
Some popular definitions are:

  • Merriam-Webster dictionary defines statistics as “a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data.
  • Statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as “Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other
Overview of Statistics:
statistics
 In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as “all persons living in a country” or “every atom composing a crystal”.

Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population (an operation called census). This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like income), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race).
When a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied. Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, the drawing of the sample has been subject to an element of randomness, hence the established numerical descriptors from the sample are also due to uncertainty. To still draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, inferential statistics is needed. It uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing), estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation), describing associations within the data (correlation) and modeling relationships within the data (for example, using regression analysis). Inference can extend to forecasting, prediction and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied; it can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial data, and can also include data mining.
Dear  User:  Here are Past Paper  For Intermediate classes (F.A, Fs.c and other), Which is collected from  other website for students to complete their exam successful . All student can download past paper at only one page.  
How to Download:

  • ·         If you using computer then right click on link and select save as
  • ·         If you are using mobile then open link and press long on image and select save image.
Note: Leave comment in there is any problem in downloading 

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